SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE
ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2012
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number 333-141568
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State or other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or
|(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
Jiugong Town, Daxing District, Beijing
People's Republic of China 100076
(Address of Principal Executive Office and Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: +86 10 82525361
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of Each Class
|Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
|Common Stock, Par Value $0.001
|NASDAQ Global Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes [ ] No [X]
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes [ ] No [X]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes [X] No [ ]
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes [X] No [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
|Large accelerated filer [ ]
|Accelerated filer [ ]
|Non-accelerated filer [ ]
|Smaller reporting company [X]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes [ ] No [X]
At December 31, 2011, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, there were 17,821,054 shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding, and the aggregate market value of such shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant (based upon the closing price of such shares as reported on the NASDAQ Global Market) was approximately $21.4 million. Shares of the registrant's common stock held by the registrant's executive officers and directors have been excluded because such persons may be deemed to be affiliates of the registrant. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of September 24, 2012, there were 17,839,464 shares of the Registrant's common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|Mine Safety Disclosures
|Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
|Selected Financial Data
|Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
|Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure of Market Risk
|Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
|Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
|Controls and Procedures
|Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
|Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
|Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
|Principal Accountant Fees and Services
|Exhibits, Financial Statements and Schedules
In this report, unless indicated otherwise, references to"China," "Chinese" and "PRC," are references to the People's Republic of China; "BVI" are references to the British Virgin Islands "China Advanced," "China-ACM," "the Company," "we," "us," or "our," are references to the combined business of China Advanced Construction Materials, Group, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, BVI-ACM, China-ACMH and AIH, as well as Xin Ao, but do not include the stockholders of China Advanced; "BVI-ACM" are references to Xin Ao Construction Materials, Inc. "China-ACMH" are references to Beijing Ao Hang Construction Materials Technology Co., Ltd.; "AIH" are references to Advance Investment Holding Co., Inc. "Xin Ao" are references to Beijing Xin Ao Concrete Group; "RMB" are references to the Renminbi, the legal currency of China; and "U.S. dollars," "dollars" and "$" are references to the legal currency of the United States.
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
In addition to historical information, this report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. You can identify such forward-looking statements by terms such as "anticipates," "believes," "could," "estimates," "expects," "intends," "may," "plans," "potential," "predicts," "projects," "should," "would" and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements relating to:our expectations regarding the market for our concrete products and services; our expectations regarding the continued growth of the concrete industry; our beliefs regarding the competitiveness of our products; our expectations regarding the expansion of our manufacturing capacity; our expectations with respect to increased revenue growth and our ability to maintain profitability resulting from increases in our production volumes; our future business development, results of operations and financial condition; competition from other manufacturers of concrete products; the loss of any member of our management team; our ability to integrate acquired subsidiaries and operations into existing operations; market conditions affecting our equity capital; our ability to successfully implement our selective acquisition strategy; changes in general economic conditions; and changes in accounting rules or the application of such rules.
Also, forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of this report. You should read this report and the documents that we reference in this report, or that we filed as exhibits to this report, in their entirety and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.
Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update any forward-looking statements publicly, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in any forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future.
Item 1. Business
We are a holding company whose primary business operations are conducted through our wholly-owned subsidiaries BVI-ACM and China-ACMH, and our variable interest entity Xin Ao. The Company engages in the production of advanced construction materials for large scale infrastructure, commercial and residential developments. The Company is primarily focused on engineering, producing, servicing, delivering and pumping a comprehensive range of advanced ready-mix concrete materials for highly technical, large scale, and environmentally-friendly construction projects. We are committed to conducting our operations with an emphasis on the extensive use of recycled waste materials, extending product life, the efficient production of our concrete materials with minimal energy usage, dust and air pollution, and innovative products, methods and practices.
During the year ended June 30, 2012, we supplied materials and provided services to our high speed railway projects through our network of ready-mixed concrete plants throughout Beijing (four as of June 30, 2012) and our portable plants (fifteen as of June 30, 2012) located in various provinces throughout China. We own one concrete plant and its related equipment, and we lease three additional plants in Beijing. In addition, we have technical and preferred procurement agreements with three independently owned concrete mixture stations, pursuant to which we are paid by percentages of cost savings for technical support provided to clients and of sales price for projects we refer to other stations due to the geographical location of our owned and leased plants. Two of the technically serviced plants are located in Datong, Shaanxi and one in Mianyang, Sichuan. Our manufacturing services are used primarily for our national high speed railway projects; almost all of our general contract contractors on the high speed railway projects supply the needed raw materials, which results in higher gross margins for us and reduces our upfront capital investments needed to purchase raw materials. We also produce ready-mix concrete at portable plants, which can be dismantled and moved to new sites for new projects. Our management believes that we may have the ability to capture a greater share of the Beijing market and further expand our footprint in China via expanding relationships and networking, signing new contracts, and continually developing market-leading innovative and eco-friendly ready-mix concrete products.
According to the Investment Research Institute of China's State Development and Reform Commission, during the 12th 5 year plan (FYP) from 2011-2015 the Chinese government will invest $450 billion (RMB 3 trillion) in railway and another $460 billion (RMB3.05 trillion) in rural infrastructure.
Our Corporate Structure
We own all of the issued and outstanding capital stock of Xin Ao Construction Materials, Inc., or BVI-ACM, a British Virgin Islands corporation, which in turn owns 100% of the outstanding capital stock of Beijing Ao Hang Construction Materials Technology Co., Ltd., or China-ACMH, a company incorporated under the laws of China. On November 28, 2007, China-ACMH entered into a series of contractual agreements with Beijing Xin Ao Concrete Group Co., Ltd., or Xin Ao, a company incorporated under the laws of China, and its two shareholders, in which China-ACMH effectively took over management of the business activities of Xin Ao and has the right to appoint all executives and senior management and the members of the board of directors of Xin Ao. The contractual arrangements are comprised of a series of agreements, including an Exclusive Technical Consulting and Services Agreement and an Operating Agreement, through which China-ACMH has the right to advise, consult, manage and operate Xin Ao for an annual fee in the amount of Xin Ao's yearly net profits after tax. Additionally, Xin Ao's shareholders have pledged their rights, titles and equity interest in Xin Ao as security for China-ACMH to collect technical consulting and services fees provided to China-ACMH through an Equity Pledge Agreement. In order to further reinforce China-ACMH's rights to control and operate Xin Ao, Xin Ao's shareholders have granted China-ACMH the exclusive right and option to acquire all of their equity interests in Xin Ao through an Option Agreement.
The following chart reflects our organizational structure as of the date of this report.
Our Corporate History
China Advanced Construction Materials Group, Inc. was founded as an unincorporated business on September 1, 2005, under the name TJS Wood Flooring, Inc., and became a C corporation in the State of Delaware on February 15, 2007. On April 29, 2008, we changed our name to China Advanced Construction Materials Group, Inc. in connection with a reverse acquisition transaction with BVI-ACM as described below.
On April 29, 2008, we completed a reverse acquisition transaction with BVI-ACM whereby we issued to the stockholders of BVI-ACM 8,809,583 shares of our common stock in exchange for all of the issued and outstanding capital stock of BVI-ACM. BVI-ACM thereby became our wholly owned subsidiary and the former stockholders of BVI-ACM became our controlling stockholders.
Background and History of BVI-ACM and China-ACMH
BVI-ACM was established on October 9, 2007, under the laws of British Virgin Islands. The majority shareholders of BVI-ACM are Chinese citizens who own 100% of Xin Ao, a limited liability company formed under laws of China. BVI-ACM was established as a "special purpose vehicle" for foreign fund raising for Xin Ao. China State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, requires the owners of any Chinese companies to obtain SAFE's approval before establishing any offshore holding company structure for foreign financing as well as subsequent acquisition matter. On September 29, 2007, BVI-ACM was approved by local Chinese SAFE as a "special purpose vehicle" offshore company.
On November 23, 2007, BVI-ACM established a subsidiary, China-ACMH, in China as a wholly owned foreign limited liability company with registered capital of $5 million. Through China-ACMH and its variable interest entity Xin Ao, we are engaged in producing general ready-mixed concrete, customized mechanical refining concrete, and some other concrete-related products which are mainly sold in China. On September 20, 2010, China ACM established a 100% owned subsidiary, Advanced Investment Holdings Co., Inc., or AIH, in the State of Nevada. AIH never engaged in operations and the Company subsequently dissolved AIH on August 30, 2011.
In March and April 2010, Xin Ao established five 100% owned subsidiaries in China: Beijing Heng Yuan Zheng Ke Technical Consulting Co., Ltd ("Heng Yuan Zheng Ke"), Beijing Hong Sheng An Construction Materials Co., Ltd ("Hong Sheng An"), Beijing Heng Tai Hong Sheng Construction Materials Co., Ltd ("Heng Tai"), Da Tong Ao Hang Wei Ye Machinery and Equipment Rental Co., Ltd ("Da Tong") and Luan Xian Heng Xin Technology Co., Ltd ("Luan Xian Heng Xin"). Total registered capital for these five subsidiaries is approximately $2.1 million (RMB 14 million) and none of these Xin Ao subsidiaries had actual operation as of June 30, 2012. The purpose of these subsidiaries is to support the Company's future growth.
Business Segment Information
During the year ended June 30, 2012, our operations were comprised of four reportable segments: selling concrete, manufacturing concrete, providing technical support services and other services, which include mixer rental, sales of materials and marketing cooperation.
For financial information relating to our business segments, see Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Note 16 of the Consolidated Financial Statements appearing elsewhere in this annual report.
Concrete Sales Business
Our concrete sales business segment is comprised of the formulation, production and delivery of the Company's line of C10-C100 concrete mixtures primarily through our current fixed plant network of 4 ready mix concrete batching plants in Beijing. For this segment of our business, we procure all of our own raw materials, mix them according to our measured mixing formula, ship the final product in mounted transit mixers to the destination work site, and, for more sophisticated structures, will pump the mixture and set it into structural frame molds as per structural design parameters. The process of delivering and setting the ready mix concrete mixture cannot exceed 90 minutes due to the chemistry of the concrete mixture which hardens thereafter. The deliverable radius of a concrete mixture from any one of our 4 ready mix plants in Beijing is approximately 25 kilometers. Traffic conditions are considerations which affect the timing and shipment of our concrete mixtures. Since the 2008 Olympics, there are alternating license plate traffic restrictions on many traffic routes in Beijing to ease traffic congestion and associated exhaust pollution. Due to the large amounts of working capital required for the acquisition of raw materials associated for this business segment, a supply shortage or degradation of supplier accounts payable credit terms would pose a potential risk to our business.
Our principal market, Beijing, has enjoyed stronger economic growth and a higher demand for construction than other regions of China. As a result, we believe that competitors will try to expand their sales and build up their distribution networks in our principal market. We anticipate that this trend will continue and likely accelerate. Increased competition may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Manufacturing Services Business
Our manufacturing services business segment is comprised of the formulation, production and delivery of project-specific concrete mixtures primarily through our current portable plant network of 15 rapid assembly and deployment batching plants, located in various provinces throughout China. Our clients will purchase and provide the raw materials in volume on a separate account which we will then proportion and mix according to our formulation for a given project's specifications. At present, our manufacturing services business segment is primarily dedicated to various high speed rail projects in China which demand very high quality standards on a time sensitive work schedule. Our high speed rail clients are primarily state-owned conglomerate construction contractors whose business practices follow closely with government policy.
Technical Services Business
Our technical services business segment is comprised of the our party production management services, including chemical engineering and ready-mix consulting services for independently owned concrete plants and their associated projects. We manage the production and receive a percentage of our client contractors' profits based on cost savings generated.
Our final business segment is comprised of other services which we engage in from time to time, including marketing cooperation and mixer rentals. When we are unable to service projects due to geographic limitations, we refer projects to several other independently-owned mixture stations as part of our marketing cooperation and existing relationships with contractors. We are paid a percentage of the sales price of the business that is referred. The marketing cooperation allows us to capture business that might otherwise be uneconomical due to capital requirements. We also generate revenues by renting our mixing trucks to other mixer stations.
Our Industry was influenced by the decline in the macro economy in recent periods. The concrete products industry witnessed a slowdown in industry production and economic growth since September 2011. In 2012, the slowdown in the industry became more obvious month by month, with profit generally being squeezed by the greater pressure to maintain stable level of production and operation.
China averaged annual GDP growth exceeding 10% over the past 30 years. China has become the world's second largest economy, both in nominal GDP and purchasing power parity terms, after the United States. In line with this macroeconomic growth the Chinese construction and building material industry has grown tremendously. China currently uses half of the world's concrete output and one third of its steel output in construction according to an article in China Orbit published in January 2011. The Chinese market, however, faces some uncertainty going forward in the face of ending projects initiated under the 2008-2009 Government stimulus package, macro-economic credit tightening measures by the Government to combat inflation, suspended approval of new high speed railway construction projects by the State Planning Commission and the Ministry of Rail, and increasing industry consolidation pressure for more energy efficient, environmentally conscious and quality consistent cement and concrete.
China is already among the world's largest construction materials producers, ranking first in the world's annual output of cement, flat glass, building ceramic and ceramic sanitary ware and accounted for 51.3% of Asia's construction materials market in 2010. The construction materials market includes all manufacturers of sand, gravel, aggregates, cement, concrete and bricks. The market does not include other finished or semi-finished building materials. According to Datamonitor, the Chinese construction materials market had total revenue of $245.6 billion in 2010, representing a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.5% for the period spanning 2006-2010. The cement segment was the market's most lucrative in 2010, with total revenue of $69.5 billion, equivalent to 28.3% of the market's overall value. The performance of the market is forecast to decelerate, with an anticipated CAGR of 6.4% for the five year period 2010-2015, which is expected to drive the market to a value of $335.5 billion by the end of 2015.
According to Nomura Research, in order to meet a possibly higher energy-saving target during 12th FYP period, China has given high priority to industry consolidation to curb capacities and energy consumption. According to news report (Source: China Cement Net, Cement Industry Restructuring Set to Start, Sept 13, 2010), China aims to increase the Top 10 cement producers' market share from 25% (as of 2009) to above 35% as of 2015, end of 12th FYP period in terms of cement capacities, for which the government actually has two prongs: phasing out outdated capacities and encouraging industry M&A.
On August 9, 2010, China announced that it was closing down 19mt of outdated cement capacity and 88.3mt of outdated clinker capacity, implicating a total of 762 cement producers across the country. In addition, it was reported that China will eliminate all of its outdated capacities by end of 12th FYP period. (Source: China Cement Net, Cement Industry Restructuring Set to Start, September 13, 2010). On the other hand, China has issued various policies to encourage industry consolidation since 2005, and the latest one, Advice to promote company M&A and industry restructuring by China's State Council on September 6, 2010, stipulates that the government will remove rules that limit cross-regional M&As and that local governments may sign agreements on splitting revenue from companies formed through cross-regional M&A, which removes the biggest obstacle for cross-region M&As. Nomura Research expects industry M&A to speed up in the next few years driven by both governments' efforts and cement producers' growth needs.
Construction Demand in China
China's gross national construction output is expected to increase by 15% during the country's 12th FYP period (2011-2015), according to a statement from China's Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China on August 18, 2011. During the same period consumption of C60 concrete in China is also expected to increase by 10%.
According to the evaluation by Research Institute of Investment, National Development and Research Commission, China's November 2008 economic stimulus package, valued at RMB 4 trillion (approximately US$593 billion at the exchange rate at such time), has had a material impact on the construction industry, contributing to growth in the construction industry of approximately RMB 594 billion in 2009. According to data prepared by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, from January to April 2009, urban fixed assets investment reached RMB3.7 trillion, up 30.5 percent year by year. Many of the projects begun under the 2008-2009 stimulus package have already been completed or will soon begin to reach completion. Credit Suisse, in a recent research report, refers to this as the fading of the "super-cycle" characterized by slowdowns in traditional property construction, extended suspension of additional high speed rail starts and general railway construction slowdown, and weakness in other infrastructure construction as 2009 projects come to completion in 2012-2013. On the other hand, Daiwa believes these slowing trends will be offset by social housing construction starts, robust construction activity for commercial and other properties and increasing rural and conservation related infrastructure spending.
The stimulus package has been used to finance programs, during 2009 and 2010 in 10 major areas, such as low-income housing, rural infrastructure, water, electricity, transportation, the environment, technological innovation and rebuilding disaster struck areas. The economic stimulus package also focuses on infrastructure projects such as new railways, roads, and airports. According to the Ministry of Railways, China doubled its investment in railways to about RMB 600 billion (approximately US$95.1 billion at an exchange rate of 6.31 on September 24, 2012) for 2009 and 2010. Part of the new funds will go to building 5,148 km of new lines, including five passenger-only high-speed lines. The ministry also plans to start 70 other new projects, which will cost an estimated RMB 1.5 trillion (approximately US$237.7 billion at an exchange rate of 6.31 on September 24, 2012). By 2012 China is expected to have 110,000 km of rail lines, including 13,000 km of passenger routes, of which, many will be high-speed railways allowing trains to run between 200 and 350 km an hour. (Chinese version: http://www.concrete365.com/news/2009/7-20/H142630705.htm). In response to a high-speed railway crash in Zhejiang province on July 23, 2011, the State Planning Commission announced on August 10, 2011 that it was suspending approvals indefinitely for new rail projects until a comprehensive safety check on existing rail lines could be completed (http://www.prcgov.org/meet/meetings-content-61.html).
According to the Summary of Construction Outlook in China (the "Summary"), published in July 2012 by the Freedonia Group, an industry research firm, construction expenditures in China are expected to rise 8.8% per annum in real terms through 2016, with ongoing urbanization and industrialization, rebounding foreign investment funding, rising personal income levels, and further population and household growth driving growth, and the Freedonia Group believes that although such growth rate cannot match "the rapid 2006-2011 pace, the country will continue to out-perform other major national construction markets."
According to the Summary, non-building construction will be the fastest growing sector through 2016, driven by the Chinese government's efforts to upgrade the country's transportation infrastructure; growth in residential building construction will primarily be fueled by rising personal income levels, household growth, and continuing urbanization, as well as government efforts to improve living conditions for low-income earners; non-residential building construction expenditures will post the slowest gains in real terms through 2016, with growth driven by investment in plants, commercial buildings, warehouses, and shopping complexes spurred by robust gains in consumer spending in China and abroad for Chinese manufactured goods and services.
China accounts for half of all new building activity in the world and rapid expansion is expected to continue to 2030 as up to 400 million citizens are expected to move into urban areas.
China's Cement & Concrete Demand
According to the Summary, demand for cement in China is forecast to rise 6.0% annually through 2012 to 1.8 billion metric tons. Growth will be driven by rising, but decelerating, construction expenditures in China. Further advances in cement manufacturing technology are also expected to help stimulate sales by improving the quality of the product. Blended cements are expected to account for about 90% of total sales in 2012, reflecting the versatility of these types across a range of construction applications, as well as their performance and/or price benefits over other types of cement. Regional cement markets reflect differences in construction expenditures, which in turn are driven by local trends in demographics, industrial output and economic activity. Central and Eastern China are expected to remain the largest cement market in China through 2012, fueled by increases in regional construction expenditures. However, the cement markets in Northwest and Southwest China are expected to grow at a faster pace, as a result of the government's Great Western Development strategy, which aims to promote investment in these areas. Consumption of cement in Central and Northern China is also expected to perform above the national average, supported by high levels of transportation infrastructure construction and booming urban markets in Beijing and Tianjin. (Summary of the Freedonia Group's January 2009 "Cement in China" report, from Business Wire).
Residential and non-residential buildings in China are increasingly requiring much more concrete due to, among other reasons, the short supply of wood. China is currently the largest consumption market of cement worldwide at over $200 billion annually. China's cement consumption amounted to approximately 44% of global demand in 2008 and is expected to be greater than current combined consumption of India and the U.S. by 2010. At the present rate, it is presumed that China will continue to be an important player in the global construction materials marketplace for at least the next two decades.
Demand for Ready-Mixed Concrete
Construction contractors are expected to continue to represent the largest market for cement, accounting for an estimated one-third of total demand in 2012. Economic downturns or reductions in government funding of infrastructure projects could significantly reduce our revenues. However, we believe that the ready-mix concrete market could exhibit the strongest growth in the cement industry. Gains are expected to benefit from government regulations banning on-site concrete and mortar mixing. Demand for cement used in concrete products is expected to be driven by the increasing popularity of precast concrete with many construction contractors. In addition, the phase-out of clay bricks will heighten demand for concrete blocks. Recognizing the significant environmental impact created from the large-scale construction activities undertaken in the past few decades, China's government implemented Decree #341 in 2004 which bans onsite concrete production in over 200 major cities across China in order to reduce environmental damage from onsite cement mixing and improve the quality of concrete used in construction.
Our Competitive Strengths
Our competition includes a number of state-owned and large private PRC-based manufacturers and distributors that produce and sell products similar to ours. We compete primarily on the basis of quality, technological innovation and price. Essentially all of the contracts on which we bid are awarded through a competitive bid process, with awards often being made to the lowest bidder, though other factors such as shorter schedules or prior experience with the customer are often just as important. Within our markets, we compete with many national, regional and local state-owned and private construction firms some of which have achieved greater market penetration or have greater financial and other resources than us. In addition, there are a number of larger national companies in our industry that could potentially establish a presence in our markets and compete with us for contracts. If we are unable to compete successfully in our markets, our relative market share and profits could be reduced.
We believe that the following competitive strengths enable us to compete effectively and to capitalize on the remaining growth potential of the market for construction materials in China:
• Large Scale Contractor Relationships. We have contracts with major construction contractors which are constructing key infrastructure, commercial and residential projects. Our sales efforts focus on large-scale projects and large customers which place large recurring orders and present less credit risk to us. For the year ended June 30, 2012, five customers accounted for approximately 11% of the Company's sales and 7% of the Company's account receivables as of June 30, 2012.
Should we lose these customers in the future and are unable to obtain additional customers, our revenues will suffer.
• Experienced Management . Management's technical knowledge and business relationships gives us the ability to secure major infrastructure projects, which provides us with leverage to acquire less sophisticated operators, increase production volumes, and implement quality standards and environmentally sensitive policies. Significant turnover in our senior management could significantly deplete the institutional knowledge held by our existing senior management team.
• Innovation Efforts . We strive to produce the most technically and scientifically advanced products for our customers and maintain close relationships with Tsinghua University, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology and Beijing Dongfang Jianyu Institute of Concrete Science & Technology which assist us with our research and development activities. During our 5 year agreement with the Institute, we have realized an advantage over many of our competitors by gaining access to a wide array of resources and knowledge. $2.3 million was paid under the agreement in the year ended June 30, 2012 to the Institute. The Company incurred research & development expenses of approximately $2.9 million and $0.6 million for the years ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
Our Growth Strategy
We are committed to enhancing profitability and cash flows through the following strategies:
• Focusing on High Capacity Utilization. We intend to focus on achieving high c apacity utilization in order to operate our plants efficiently, by increasing capacity utilization at existing plants or expanding capacity by building new plants to meet existing contracts and anticipated increase in demand and by retiring under-utilized plants in the face of reduced demand. We increased capacity utilization at our four Beijing-based concrete plants significantly in fiscal 2011 when demand was increasing. During fiscal 2012 we retired ten portable stations in view of lower anticipated demand. We may begin to selectively sell or retire portable plant assets in fiscal year 2013 based on slowing demand for railway construction in connection with the suspension of new and ongoing high speed railway projects stemming from changing policy announced by China's Ministry of Rail and State Planning Commission.
• Mergers and Acquisitions . When capital permits, we intend to capitalize on the challenges that smaller companies are encountering in our industry by acquiring complementary companies at favorable prices. We believe that buying rather than building capacity is an option that may be attractive to us if replacement costs are higher than purchase prices. We continue to look into acquiring smaller concrete manufacturers in China as part of our expansion plans. We have not identified specified targets or entered into any Letters-of-Intent at this time.
• Vertical Integration . When capital permits, we plan to acquire smaller companies within the construction industry, develop more material recycling centers, and hire additional highly qualified employees. In order to accomplish this, we may be required to offer additional equity or debt securities. Certain of the companies we may seek to acquire are suppliers of the raw materials we purchase to manufacture our products. If we do acquire such companies we will have greater control over our raw material costs.
• Supply Chain Efficiencies and Scale. We intend to streamline our supply chain process and leverage our economies of scale.
• New Product Offering . We plan to produce a lightweight aggregate concrete for use in projects and to expand product offerings to include pre-cast concrete.
We provide materials and services through our network of ready-mixed concrete plants throughout Beijing (four as of June 30, 2012) and portable plants (fifteen as of June 30, 2012) located in various provinces throughout China. We own one concrete plant and its related equipment, and we lease three additional plants in Beijing. In addition, we have technical and preferred procurement agreements with three independently owned concrete mixture stations, pursuant to which we are paid by percentages of cost savings for technical support provided to clients and of sales price for projects we refer to other stations due to the geographical location of our owned and leased plants. Two of the technically serviced plants are located in Datong, Shaanxi and one in Mianyang, Sichuan.
Our manufacturing services are used primarily for our national high speed railway projects; almost all of our general contract contractors on the high speed railway projects supply the needed raw materials, which results in higher gross margins for us and reduces our upfront capital investments needed to purchase raw materials.
We also produce ready-mix concrete at portable plants, which can be dismantled and moved to new sites for new projects. The portable plants can be dismantled and moved to new sites in less than a few weeks. The plants are currently located between railway stations and each of these plants is directly tied to contracts we have recently won and are expected to operate near capacity. Almost all of our general contractors supply raw materials for the projects, which results in higher gross margins for the Company and reduces upfront capital investment on raw material purchase. The one time start-up cost for each portable plant and associated equipment is approximately $3 million, with cost optimization initiatives underway to bring the average cost down below $2.5 million per plant. Each plant is capable of generating approximately $2 million in revenue per year.
Products and Services
As architectural designs have become more complex, challenging, and modern in scope, the need for technology driven companies to provide high-end specialty concrete mixtures has been rapidly accelerating. Increasing demand for state-of-the-art cement mixtures has spurred our technological innovation and our ability to provide advanced mixtures of building materials that meet project specific engineering and environmental specifications. We produce a range of C10 to C100 concrete materials and specialize in an array of specialized ready-mixed concretes tailored to each project's technical specifications and environmental standards. Our High Speed Rail clients require our concrete products be held to 100 year strength and survivability standard as tested by the local Ministry of Construction authority.
We specialize in "ready-mixed concrete", a concrete mixture made at our facility with complete computerized operating systems. Such concrete accounts for nearly three-fourths of all concrete produced. Ready-mixed concrete is mixed on demand and is shipped to worksites by concrete mixer trucks.
The ready-mixed concrete sector in the concrete market is growing at a fast rate, largely due to the Chinese government's implementation of Decree #341 in 2004. This law bans on-site concrete production in over 200 cities across China, with the goal of reducing environmental damages from onsite concrete mixing and improving the quality of concrete used in construction. The use of ready-mix concrete minimizes worksite noise, dirt and congestion, and most additives used in ready-mix concrete are environmentally safe. Our goal is to continue to use at least 30% recyclable components in our concrete mixtures.
We are building a comprehensive product portfolio that serves the diverse needs of our developing customer base and its unique construction and infrastructure projects. While we mainly specialize in ready-mix concrete formulations from controlled low-strength material to high-strength concrete, each specifically formulated to meet the individual needs of each project. We provide both industry standard and highly innovative products, including:
|Common Industry Mixtures
|Industry Leading Mixtures
|(Customized to Project)
|Highly Technical Blends
|Ready-mixed Concrete Blends: C10 to C100
|Compound Admixture Concrete
|Controlled Low-Strength Material (CLSM)
|Lightweight Aggregate Concrete
|High-Strength Concrete with Customized Fibers
|Energy-saving Phase change thermostat concrete
|Soil Cement, Unique Foundation Concrete
|C100 High Performance Concrete
For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, we had no customer, whose sales accounted for more than 3% of our total sales. Five customers accounted for approximately 11% and 19% of the Company's sales for the years ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The total accounts receivable from these customers amounted to approximately $9.2 million and $14.4 million as of June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
Developing New Relationships
Our business will be damaged if project contracts with the Chinese government, for which we may act as a sub-contractor are cancelled. Our sales strategy balances these risks focusing on building new long-term cooperative relationships with some of China's top construction companies in order to benefit from their reputations and to enter new markets. Our sales representatives are actively building relationships with the Chinese government, general contractors, architects, engineers, and other potential sources of new business in our target markets. Our sales efforts are further supported by our executive officers and engineering personnel, who have substantial experience in the design, formulation and implementation of advanced construction and concrete materials projects.
We rely on third party suppliers of the raw materials to manufacture our products. Our top five suppliers accounted for approximately 12% and 18% of the Company's purchases for the years ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The total accounts payable to these suppliers amounted to approximately $7.3 million and $7.1 million as of June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
Sales and Marketing
Our marketing efforts are geared towards advancing China-ACMH as the supplier of choice for building China's most modern and challenging projects. The Company is constantly seeking ways to raise its profile and leverage additional publicity. To this end, the Company plans to expand its presence at leading construction industry events and in periodicals to build on its successful reputation. The primary goal when expanding into new markets is to reinforce the sales effort by promoting positive testimonials and success stories from the Company's strong base of high profile clients and projects.
Research and Development
Construction materials companies are under extreme pressure to respond quickly to industry demands with new designs and product innovations that support rapidly changing technical demand and regulatory requirements. We devote a substantial amount of attention to the research and development of advanced construction materials that meet the demands of project specific needs while striving to lead the industry in value, materials and processes. We have sophisticated in house R&D and testing facilities, a highly technical onsite team, access to highly specialized market research, cooperation with a leading research institution, experienced management and advisory board, and close relationships with leading concrete materials experts. Our research and development expense was approximately $2.9 million in the year ended June 30, 2012, as compared to $0.6 million for the year ended June 30, 2011.
University Relationships & Cooperation Agreements
We have strong relationships with Tsinghua University and the Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology. We have signed a ten-year cooperation agreement with Xi'an University on June 10, 2007, pursuant to which we expect to pay approximately $42,857 to Xi'an University per year and Xi'an University will set up a technical research center to conduct scientific research for the Company and work with the Company in the areas of technical development, engineering design and human resource training according to the Company's business strategies and requirements. Xi'an University is a top university in the fields of building and material science research and education and works with the Company to follow the advancements of the cement and concrete industries globally.
Beijing Concrete Institute Partnership
The Beijing Dongfang Jianyu Institute of Concrete Science & Technology, or Beijing Concrete Institute, has 40 employees, with five senior research fellows, and 15 mid-level researchers. The Institute and its staff have participated and collaborated with national and local government agencies to establish the following industry standards:Specification For Mix Proportion Design of Ordinary Concrete JGJ55-2000 Code for Acceptance of Constructional Quality Of Concrete Structures GB 50204-2002 Applied Technical Specification of Mineral Admixtures In Concrete DBJ/T01-64-2002 Ready-Mixed Concrete GB/T 14902-2003
13Practice Code for Application of Ready-Mixed Mortar DBJ 01-99-2005 Management Specification of Quality for Ready-Mixed Concrete Technical Requirement for Environmental Labeling Products Ready-Mixed Concrete HJ/T412-2007
We have a close association with the Beijing Concrete Institute and have been able to incorporate many of these research findings into our operations, products, and procedures. We work closely with the institute and, in return for sponsoring multiple research initiatives, have been granted exclusive work space for the development of the materials used for our existing plants' regional projects.
We are able to use the Research Findings & Technical Publication and Procedures of the Beijing Concrete Institute in our business, which provides us with an advantage over many of our competitors. Because of our five year exclusive contract with the institute, our competitors are unable to benefit from the same findings for commercial use. Some of these findings include:Research on Compound Admixture HPC; 3rd Class Award for China Building Materials Science & Technology Progress. Research and Application of C100 HPC; 3rd Class Award for Beijing Science & Technology Progress. Research on pumping Light Aggregate Concrete; Innovation Award for China Building Materials Science & Technology. Research and Application of Green (nontoxic) HPC; First Prize for Beijing Science & Technology Progress. Construction Technology of HPC for the Capital International Airport Research on Production and Construction Technology of Phase Change Energy-saving Thermostat Concrete and Mortar Polycarboxylate Series High Performance Water Reducing Agent Compositing Technique State Swimming Center for Concrete Cracking Control Technology
In addition, we are able to collaborate closely with the institute and its executives who play a strong role recommending industry standards, advising on major infrastructure developments, and creating and maintaining strong connections with leading developers, construction companies, and governmental officials.
Some of our more advanced products and processes developed through our relationships with research institutes and universities include:
C100 High Performance Concrete
High Strength Concrete is often defined as concrete with a compressive strength greater than 6000 psi (41 MPa). The primary difference between high-strength concrete and normal-strength concrete relates to the compressive strength that refers to the maximum resistance of a concrete sample to applied pressure. Manufacturing high-strength concrete involves making optimal use of the basic ingredients that constitute normal-strength concrete.
Through our collaborative efforts, we have developed a high performance concrete which can be produced at an impermeable grade above P35, and can be used as self-waterproofing concrete for structural engineering, as the water-cement (W/C) ratio and carbonized shrinking is minimal and the structure is close-grained.
Only a limited number of firms in the Beijing area have the expertise to produce C100 High Performance Concrete.
Compound Admixture Concrete
This compound mineral mixture is a composite of coal powder, mineral powder and mineral activators blended to specific proportions. This mixture improves activity, filling, and super-additive effects of the concrete and also improves the compatibility between cement and aggregate.
Lightweight Aggregate Concrete & Innovative Pumping Technology
This procedure involves a pumping technology of lightweight aggregate. It is a pretreatment method of lightweight aggregate. Setting appropriate times and pressure, lightweight aggregate will reach an appropriate saturation state under pressure once it is put into a custom designed sealed pressure vessel. Lightweight aggregate concrete prepared using the above pretreatment method, will dry quicker under pumping pressure, and maintain consistency. Accordingly, lightweight aggregate concrete will be easily pumped which can shorten construction time.
Energy-saving Technologies of Phase Change Thermostat Concrete
Energy conservation concrete may adjust and reflect process temperature, and temperature self-control may solve cracking brought about by cement heat of hydration in large-scale concrete pours.
Polycarboxylate Series High Performance Water Reducing Agent Compositing Technique
The research and production of water reducing admixture would improve performance while lowering pollution and environmental impact. Super plasticizer Polycarboxylate series which reduces water requirements is an attractive additive in that it enables high strength concrete, super-strength concrete, high fluidity and super plasticizer concrete, and self-defense concrete. The water reduction of Polycarboxylate may reach 20% to 25%, which is higher than the Naphthaline water reducing agent, which is the current industry standard. The cost of the water reducing agent is competitve, and it may be used to prepare high strength and high performance concrete instead of Naphthaline.
Application of Reused Water in Concrete
The re-use of waste water of a concrete plant to mix concrete is significant as it can reduce production costs, minimize fresh water use and represent an efficient approach to address industrial waste. The practical application of this effort is a further step towards the goal of minimal pollution and emissions.
Our principal market, Beijing, has enjoyed stronger economic growth and a higher demand for construction than other regions of China. As a result, we believe that competitors will try to expand their sales and build up their distribution networks in our principal market. Our future success depends on our ability to establish and maintain a competitive position in the marketplace.
We compete primarily on the basis of quality, technological innovation and price. Our main competitors include Jiangong Shanggong Center, Jinyu Group Concrete, Zhuzong Shanggong Center and Zhonghang Konggang Concrete.
Essentially all of the contracts on which we bid are awarded through a competitive bid process, with awards generally being made to the lowest bidder, though other factors such as shorter schedules or prior experience with the customer are often just as important. Within our markets, we compete with many national, regional and local construction firms. Some of these competitors have achieved greater market penetration or have greater financial and other resources than we do. In addition, we compete with a number of state-owned enterprises, which have significantly greater financial resources than we do and which may have a competitive advantage over us.
There are approximately 163 concrete mixture stations in the Beijing area. The concrete production industry is highly segmented, with no single supplier having greater than a 10% market share.
We currently own the following intellectual property rights:
C100 High Performance Concrete: Patent #2007102011320 Lightweight Pre-Processing Method and Device: Patent#2007 10201131.6 Compound mineral mixture with: Patent #200710107881.7
Lightweight Aggregate Pressure Pre-Heating Equipment: Utility Model# ZL200720200683.0
We are required to comply with environmental protection laws and regulations promulgated by the Ministry of Construction and the State Environmental Protection Administration. Some specific environmental regulations apply to sealed transportation of dust materials and final products, closed storage of sand and gravel, as well as reduction of noise and dust pollution on production sites and encouragement of the use of waste materials. The governmental regulatory authorities conduct periodic inspections. We have met all the requirements in the past inspections. We are one of ten companies in the industry that have been awarded the honor of "Green Concrete Producer" by the PRC government.
The company has been in compliance with all registrations and requirements for the issuance and maintenance of all licenses and certificates required by the applicable governing authorities, including the Ministry of Construction and the Beijing Administration of Industry & Commerce. The Ministry of Construction awards Level II and Level III qualifications to concrete producers in the PRC construction industry, based on criteria such as production capacity, technical qualification, registered capital and capital equipment, as well as performance on past projects. Level II companies are licensed to produce concrete of all strength levels as well as special concretes, and Level III producers are licensed to produce concrete with strength level C60 and below. We are a Level II concrete producer.
Additionally, to make improvements at our currently existing plants, we do not need to apply for regulatory approval. However, in order to build a new concrete plant, we will need to (i) apply for a business license from the local Administration of Industry and Commerce, (ii) receive environmental approval from the local Environmental Protection Bureau in the relevant district area, and (iii) apply for an Industry Qualification Certificate from the local Municipal Construction Committee. The time estimated to receive each of these approvals is approximately one month. In the past, we have not been rejected by any of these three regulators for approval.
Our Labor Force
As of June 30, 2012, we employed 925 full-time employees. The following table sets forth the number of our full-time employees by function as of June 30, 2012.
Employees/Independent Contractors and their Functions
|Management & Administrative Staff
|Technical & Engineering Staff
|Equipment & Maintenance
|Drivers & Heavy Equipment Operators
As required by applicable PRC law, we have entered into employment contracts with all of our officers, managers and employees. We believe that we maintain a satisfactory working relationship with our employees and we have not experienced any significant labor disputes or any difficulty in recruiting staff for our operations.
In addition, we are required by PRC law to cover employees in China with various types of social insurance and believe that we are in material compliance with the relevant PRC laws.
We believe our insurance coverage is customary and standard for companies of comparable size in comparable industries in China.
REPORTS TO SECURITY HOLDERS
We are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission and our filings are available to the public over the internet at the Securities and Exchange Commission's website at http://www.sec.gov. The public may read and copy any materials filed by us with the Securities and Exchange Commission at the Securities and Exchange Commission's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street N.E. Washington D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the Securities and Exchange Commission at 1-800-732-0330. The SEC also maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and formation statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, at http://www.sec.gov.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all of the other information included in this report, before making an investment decision. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could suffer. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS
Our plans to build additional plants and to improve and upgrade our internal control and management system will require capital expenditures in fiscal year 2013.
Our plans to build additional plants and to maintain and continually upgrade our internal control and management systems in line with our growing scale will require significant capital expenditures in fiscal year 2012. We may also need further funding for working capital, investments, potential acquisitions and joint ventures and other corporate requirements. We cannot assure you that cash generated from our operations will be sufficient to fund these development plans, or that our actual capital expenditures and investments will not significantly exceed our current planned amounts. If either of these conditions arises, we may have to seek external financing to satisfy our capital needs. Our ability to obtain external financing at reasonable costs is subject to a variety of uncertainties. Failure to obtain sufficient external funds for our development plans could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating performance.
Five customer orders consisted of 11% of the net sales of the Company for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, and the loss of any of these customers can result in a depressive effect on our net profit.
Our Company focuses on large projects for large Chinese customers. Five customers accounted for approximately 11% and 19% of the Company's sales for the years ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The total accounts receivable from these customers amounted to approximately $9.2 million and $14.4 million as of June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Should we lose any of these customers in the future and are unable to obtain additional customers, our revenues will decrease.
Our business is subject to the risk of supplier concentration.
Our top five suppliers provide approximately 12% of the sourcing of the raw materials for our concrete production business. As a result of this concentration in our supply chain, our business and operations would be negatively affected if any of our key suppliers were to experience significant disruption affecting the price, quality, availability or timely delivery of their products. The partial or complete loss of one of these suppliers, or a significant adverse change in our relationship with any of these suppliers, could result in lost revenue, added costs and distribution delays that could harm our business and customer relationships. In addition, concentration in our supply chain can exacerbate our exposure to risks associated with the termination by key suppliers of our distribution agreements or any adverse change in the terms of such agreements, which could have an adverse impact on our revenues and profitability.
We may experience major accidents in the course of our operations, which may cause significant property damage and personal injuries.
Significant industry-related accidents and natural disasters may cause interruptions to various parts of our operations, or could result in property or environmental damage, increase in operating expenses or loss of revenue. The occurrence of such accidents and the resulting consequences may not be covered adequately, or at all, by the insurance policies we carry. In accordance with customary practice in China, we do not carry any business interruption insurance or third party liability insurance for personal injury or environmental damage arising from accidents on our property or relating to our operations other than our automobiles. Losses or payments incurred may have a material adverse effect on our operating performance if such losses or payments are not fully insured.
Our planned expansion and technical improvement projects could be delayed or adversely affected by, among other things, failures to receive regulatory approvals, difficulties in obtaining sufficient financing, technical difficulties, or human or other resource constraints.
We intend to expand new production facilities during the next few years. The costs projected for our planned expansion and technical improvement projects and expansion may exceed those originally contemplated. Costs savings and other economic benefits expected from these projects may not materialize as a result of any such project delays, cost overruns or changes in market circumstances.
To make improvements at our currently existing plants, we do not need to apply for regulatory approval. However, in order to build a new concrete plant, we will need to (i) apply for a business license from the local Administration of Industry and Commerce, (ii) apply for an Industry Qualification Certificate from the local Municipal Construction Committee, and (iii) receive environmental approval from the local Environmental Protection Bureau in the relevant district area. There is no guarantee that we will be able to obtain these regulatory approvals in a timely manner or at all.
Additionally, in order to construct a new concrete plant, we may need to apply for a short term loan from a local commercial bank to be used for working capital. Because the lending policies of the local commercial banks are subject to change, there is no guarantee that we will be able to obtain approval for such a loan with conditions favorable to us in a timely manner or at all.
Failure to obtain intended economic benefits from these new plants and technical improvements projects, either due to cost overruns, our failure to obtain the necessary regulatory approvals or our failure to obtain necessary loan financing on terms favorable to us could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating performances.
We cannot assure you that our growth strategy will be successful.
One of our strategies is to grow through increasing the distribution and sales of our products by penetrating existing markets in China and entering new geographic markets in China. However, many obstacles to entering such new markets exist including, but not limited to, competition from established companies in such existing markets in the China. We cannot, therefore, assure you that we will be able to successfully overcome such obstacles and establish our products in any additional markets. Our inability to implement this growth strategy successfully may have a negative impact on our growth, future financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
If we fail to effectively manage our growth and expand our operations, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected.
Our future success depends on our ability to expand our business to address growth in demand for our products and services. In order to maximize potential growth in our current and potential markets, we believe that we must expand our manufacturing and marketing operations. Our ability to accomplish these goals is subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including:
• delays and cost overruns as a result of a number of factors, many of which may be beyond our control, such as problems with equipment vendors and manufacturing services provided by third-party manufacturers or subcontractors;
• our receipt of any necessary government approvals or permits that may be required to expand our operations in a timely manner or at all;
• diversion of significant management attention and other resources; and
• failure to execute our expansion plan effectively.
To accommodate our growth, we will need to implement a variety of new and upgraded operational and financial systems, procedures, and controls, including improvements to our accounting and other internal management systems, by dedicating additional resources to our reporting and accounting function, and improvements to our record keeping and contract tracking system. We will also need to recruit more personnel and train and manage our growing employee base. Furthermore, our management will be required to maintain and expand our relationships with our existing customers and find new customers for our services. There is no guarantee that our management can succeed in maintaining and expanding these relationships.
If we encounter any of the risks described above, or if we are otherwise unable to establish or successfully operate additional capacity or increase our output, we may be unable to grow our business and revenues, reduce our operating costs, maintain our competitiveness or improve our profitability and, consequently, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects will be adversely affected.
If we are unable to accurately estimate the overall risks or costs associated with a project on which we are bidding on, we may achieve a profit lower than anticipated or even incur a loss on the contract.
Substantially all of our revenues and contract backlog are typically derived from fixed unit price contracts. Fixed unit price contracts require us to perform the contract for a fixed unit price irrespective of our actual costs. As a result, we realize a profit on these contracts only if we successfully estimate our costs and then successfully control actual costs and avoid cost overruns. If our cost estimates for a contract are inaccurate, or if we do not execute the contract within our cost estimates, then cost overruns may cause the contract not to be as profitable as we expected, or may cause us to incur losses. This, in turn, could negatively affect our cash flow, earnings and financial position.
The costs incurred and gross profit realized on those contracts can vary, sometimes substantially, from the original projections due to a variety of factors, including, but not limited to:onsite conditions that differ from those assumed in the original bid; delays caused by weather conditions; later contract start dates than expected when we bid the contract; contract modifications creating unanticipated costs not covered by change orders; changes in availability, proximity and costs of materials, including steel, concrete, aggregate and other construction materials (such as stone, gravel and sand), as well as fuel and lubricants for our equipment; availability and skill level of workers in the geographic location of a project; our suppliers' or subcontractors' failure to perform; fraud or theft committed by our employees; mechanical problems with our machinery or equipment; citations issued by governmental authorities difficulties in obtaining required governmental permits or approvals; changes in applicable laws and regulations; and claims or demands from third parties alleging damages arising from our work or from the project of which our work is part.
Economic downturns or reductions in government funding of infrastructure projects could significantly reduce our revenues.
Our business is highly dependent on the amount of infrastructure work funded by various governmental entities, which, in turn, depends on the overall condition of the economy, the need for new or replacement infrastructure, the priorities placed on various projects funded by governmental entities and national or local government spending levels. Decreases in government funding of infrastructure projects could decrease the number of civil construction contracts available and limit our ability to obtain new contracts, which could reduce our revenues and profits.
The worldwide recession and credit crisis could impact our business.
The tightening of credit in financial markets and the general economic downturn could adversely affect the ability of our customers, and suppliers to obtain the financing they need to make purchases from us, to perform their obligations under agreements with us or even to continue their operations. The credit tightening and decreased cash availability could also result in an increase in cancellation of orders for our products and services and/or a decrease in demand for our products and services in the markets in which we operate. While we believe that the effects of the recession and credit crisis have abated, we are unable to predict potential future economic conditions and disruptions in financial markets or their effect on our business and results of operations, but the consequences may be materially adverse.
Our concrete production plants in Beijing may be subject to a general city rezoning plan which, if implemented in the future, may require us to relocate or possibly permanently shut down certain of these plants.
Certain of our concrete production plants in Beijing may be subject to a general city rezoning plan which has been prepared by the Beijing municipal government. Under the rezoning plan, it is intended that the properties where these plants are located will be rezoned from industrial to commercial use. If and when implemented in respect of those properties, the rezoning plan may require us to vacate these properties and relocate the plants. In the event we are required to vacate the above properties, we would implement certain strategies to minimize any loss of production capacity during relocation. There can be no assurance that our strategies to deal with the relocation of the facilities can be implemented, or that such strategies can be implemented before we are required to vacate the above properties due to the proposed general city rezoning plan. If we are required to relocate the facilities, our results of operation and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.
Delays in government funding of high-speed railway projects by the State Planning Commission and the Chinese Ministry of Railways could significantly reduce our revenues.
In response to a high-speed railway crash in Zhejiang province on July 23, 2011, the State Planning Commission announced on August 10, 2011 and subsequently the Chinese Ministry of Railways announced that it was suspending approvals indefinitely for new rail projects until a comprehensive safety check on existing rail lines could be completed ( http://www.prcgov.org/meet/meetings-content-61.html ).
Our contracts with respect to construction and expansion of China's high speed rail system accounted for approximately 7% of our revenues for the year ended June 30, 2012. Accordingly, any project delays or cancellation of existing contracts would have a significant adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, the cancellation of future projects for which we would have submitted a bid to provide our services could delay further growth of our Company and adversely affect our business operations.
Our exposure to financially troubled customers or suppliers could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
We provide manufacturing services to companies, and rely on suppliers, that have in the past and may in the future experience financial difficulty, particularly in light of recent conditions in the credit markets and the overall economy that affected access to capital and liquidity. As a result, we devote significant resources to monitor receivables and inventory balances with certain of our customers. If our customers experience financial difficulty, we could have difficulty recovering amounts owed to us from these customers, or demand for our services from these customers could decline. We have experienced delays in payment on our projects from China's Ministry of Railways, or MOR. After the Minster of MOR was arrested for corruption charges, the MOR conducted payment chain audits; in addition, the MOR was under pressure to repay its debts incurred during the years of expansion. As a result, the MOR has delayed payments to construction companies, including us. Furthermore, the government tightened monetary policy in order to regulate inflation, which in turn led to delayed payment on our housing construction projects. We expect longer collection period on accounts receivable and higher probability of uncollectable accounts receivable, and therefore changed the estimate of our allowance for doubtful accounts within one year from our historical default rate of 2% to 5% based on peers' comparable rate in domestic construction industry during the year ended June 30, 2012. Due to concern over inflation, the Chinese government began to tighten its monetary policy from October of 2010, which affected the real estate and construction industries adversely. As a result, our accounts receivable increased and the provision for doubtful accounts also increased. Some of our customers appeared to have the problems of declining business and shortage in cash. The allowance for doubtful accounts increased to approximately $24.9 million at June 30, 2012, compared to approximately $5.6 million at June 30, 2011. In fact, our provision for doubtful accounts, as a percentage of our overall accounts receivable, has increased from approximately 6.6% as of June 30, 2011, to approximately 18.8% as of June 30, 2012. The inability to collect on our outstanding accounts receivable could adversely affect our operating cash flows and reduce our working capital. As a result, we may suffer material write-offs on our accounts receivable to bad debt expense. The inability of our suppliers to supply us with needed raw material could adversely affect our production process and therefore, we may not be able to fulfill our contract arrangements with customers.
We rely on internal models to manage risk, to provide accounting estimates and to make other business decisions. Our results could be adversely affected if those models do not provide reliable estimates or predictions of future activity.
We rely heavily on internal models in making a variety of decisions crucial to the successful operation of our business, including allowances for doubtful accounts and other accounting estimates. It is therefore important that our models are accurate, and any failure in this regard could have a material adverse effect on our results. Models are inherently imperfect predictors of actual results because they are based on historical data available to us and our assumptions about factors such as credit demand, payment rates, default rates, delinquency rates and other factors that may overstate or understate future experience. Our models could produce unreliable results for a number of reasons, including the limitations of historical data to predict results due to unprecedented events or circumstances,
invalid or incorrect assumptions underlying the models, the need for manual adjustments in response to rapid changes in economic conditions, incorrect coding of the models, incorrect data being used by the models or inappropriate application of a model to products or events outside of the model's intended use. In particular, models are less dependable when the economic environment is outside of historical experience, as has been the case recently. Due to the factors described above and in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations", we may, among other things, experience actual charge-offs that exceed our estimates and which are possibly greater than our allowance for doubtful accounts, or which require material adjustments to the allowance. Unanticipated and excessive default and charge-off experience can adversely affect our profitability and financial condition and adversely affect our ability to finance our business.
Our business will be damaged if project contracts with the Chinese government, for which we may act as a sub-contractor are cancelled.
We do not enter into any contracts directly with the Chinese government. For contracts that are funded by the Chinese government, we place bids and enter into subcontracts with the private entity prime contractor. A sudden cancellation of a prime contract, and in turn our subcontract, could cause our equipment and work crews to remain idle for a significant period of time until other comparable work becomes available. This idle time could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our industry is highly competitive, with numerous larger companies with greater resources competing with us, and our failure to compete effectively could reduce the number of new contracts awarded to us or adversely affect our margins on contracts awarded.
Our competition includes a number of state-owned and large private PRC-based manufacturers and distributors that produce and sell products similar to ours. We compete primarily on the basis of quality, technological innovation and price. Essentially all of the contracts on which we bid are awarded through a competitive bid process, with awards generally being made to the lowest bidder, though other factors such as shorter schedules or prior experience with the customer are often just as important. Within our markets, we compete with many national, regional and local state-owned and private construction firms. Some of these competitors have achieved greater market penetration or have greater financial and other resources than us. In addition, there are a number of larger national companies in our industry that could potentially establish a presence in our markets and compete with us for contracts. As a result, we may need to accept lower contract margins in order to compete against these competitors. If we are unable to compete successfully in our markets, our relative market share and profits could be reduced.
We could face increased competition in our principal market.
Our principal market, Beijing, has enjoyed stronger economic growth and a higher demand for construction than other regions of China. As a result, we believe that competitors will try to expand their sales and build up their distribution networks in our principal market. We anticipate that this trend will continue and likely accelerate. Increased competition may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our dependence on subcontractors and suppliers of materials could increase our costs and impair our ability to compete on contracts on a timely basis or at all, which would adversely affect our profits and cash flow.
We rely on third-party subcontractors to perform some of the work on many of our contracts. We do not bid on contracts unless we have the necessary subcontractors committed for the anticipated scope of the contract and at prices that we have included in our bid. Therefore, to the extent that we cannot obtain third-party subcontractors, our profits and cash flow will suffer.
We may be exposed to liabilities under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and any determination that we violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or Chinese anti-corruption law could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We are subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practice Act, or FCPA, and other laws that prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments and their officials and political parties by U.S. persons and issuers as defined by the statute for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Chinese anti-corruption law also strictly prohibits bribery of government officials. We have operations, agreements with third parties and make sales in China, where corruption may occur. Our activities in China create the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by one of the employees, consultants, sales agents or distributors of our Company, even though these parties are not always subject to our control. It is our policy to implement safeguards to prevent these practices by our employees. However, our existing safeguards and any future improvements may prove to be less than effective, and the employees, consultants, sales agents or distributors of our Company may engage in conduct for which we might be held responsible.
Violations of the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, and we may be subject to other liabilities, which could negatively affect our business, operating results and financial condition. In addition, the United States government may seek to hold our Company liable for successor liability FCPA violations committed by companies in which we invest or that we acquire.
We depend heavily on key personnel, and turnover of key employees and senior management could harm our business.
Our future business and results of operations depend in significant part upon the continued contributions of our key technical and senior management personnel, including Xianfu Han, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and Weili He, our Vice-Chairman and Chief Operating Officer. They also depend in significant part upon our ability to attract and retain additional qualified management, technical, operational and support personnel for our operations. If we lose a key employee, if a key employee fails to perform in his or her current position, or if we are not able to attract and retain skilled employees as needed, our business could suffer. Significant turnover in our senior management could significantly deplete the institutional knowledge held by our existing senior management team. We depend on the skills and abilities of these key employees in managing the reclamation, technical, and marketing aspects of our business, any part of which could be harmed by turnover in the future.
Certain of our existing stockholders have substantial influence over our company, and their interests may not be aligned with the interests of our other stockholders.
Our Chairman, Xianfu Han, owns approximately 32.4% of our outstanding voting securities and our Vice-Chairman, Weili He, owns approximately 17% of our outstanding voting securities as of June 30, 2012, in a fully-diluted share base. As a result, each have significant influence over our business, including decisions regarding mergers, consolidations, liquidations and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. This concentration of ownership may also have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing a future change of control, which could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and might reduce the price of our shares.
We may require additional capital and we may not be able to obtain it on acceptable terms or at all.
We may require additional cash resources due to changed business conditions or other future developments, including any investments or acquisitions we may decide to pursue. If our resources are insufficient to satisfy our cash requirements, we may seek to sell additional equity or debt securities or obtain additional credit facilities. The sale of additional equity securities could result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could require us to agree to operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations. Our ability to obtain additional capital on acceptable terms is subject to a variety of uncertainties, including:investors' perception of, and demand for, securities of Chinese-based companies involved in construction supply or concrete industries; conditions of the U.S. and other capital markets in which we may seek to raise funds; our future results of operations, financial condition and cash flows; and economic, political and other conditions in China.
Financing may not be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Any failure by us to raise additional funds on terms favorable to us, or at all, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be exposed to potential risks relating to our internal controls over financial reporting.
As directed by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 or SOX 404, the SEC adopted rules requiring public companies to include a report of management on the company's internal controls over financial reporting in their annual reports. Under current law, the auditor attestation will not be required as long as our filing status remains as a smaller reporting company, but we may cease to be a smaller reporting company in future years, in which case we will be subject to the auditor attestation requirement. We were subject to management attestation report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, and a report of our management for the 2012 fiscal year is included under Item 9A of this annual report concluding that, as of June 30, 2012, our internal controls over financial reporting were not effective. If we cannot remediate the material weakness identified in a timely manner or, if and when we are subject to the auditor attestation report requirement, we are unable to receive a positive attestation from our independent auditors with respect to our internal controls, investors and others may lose confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which could adversely affect the price of our common stock.
We have limited insurance coverage for our operations in China.
The insurance industry in China is still at an early stage of development. Insurance companies in China offer limited insurance products. We have determined that the risks of disruption or liability from our business, the loss or damage to our property, including our facilities, equipment and office furniture, the cost of insuring for these risks, and the difficulties associated with acquiring such insurance on commercially reasonable terms make it impractical for us to have such insurance. As a result, we do not have any business liability, disruption, litigation or property insurance coverage for our operations in China except for insurance on some company owned vehicles. Any uninsured occurrence of loss or damage to property, or litigation or business disruption may result in the incurrence of substantial costs and the diversion of resources, which could have an adverse effect on our operating results.
We may not be current in our payment of social insurance and housing accumulation fund for our employees and such shortfall may expose us to relevant administrative penalties.
The PRC laws and regulations require all employers in China to fully contribute their own portion of the social insurance premium and housing accumulation fund for their employees within a certain period of time. Failure to do so may expose the employers to make rectification for the accrued premium and fund by the relevant labor authority. Also, an administrative fine may be imposed on the employers as well as the key management members. As of June 30, 2012, Xin Ao has fully contributed the social insurance premium and housing accumulation fund according to PRC laws and regulations.
Our operations may incur substantial liabilities to comply with environmental laws and regulations.
Our concrete manufacturing operations are subject to laws and regulations relating to the release or disposal of materials into the environment or otherwise relating to environmental protection. Applicable law required that we obtain an environmental impact report and environmental approval from the environmental protection administration prior to obtaining the business license and construction enterprise qualification certificate for Xin Ao. However, the local administration of industry and commerce and the Beijing Municipal Construction Commission did not require Xin Ao to provide the environmental impact report and environmental approval, and Xin Ao has not received any notice of non-compliance nor has any fine or other penalty been assessed. However, the environmental protection administration may in the future require that Xin Ao provide the applicable report and apply for the required environment approval. Our failure to have complied with the applicable laws regarding delivery of the report may result in the assessment of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, the incurrence of investigatory or remedial obligations and the imposition of injunctive relief. Resolution of these matters may require considerable management time and expense. In addition, changes in environmental laws and regulations occur frequently and any changes that result in more stringent or costly manufacturing, storage, transport, disposal or cleanup requirements could require us to make significant expenditures to reach and maintain compliance and may otherwise have a material adverse effect on our industry in general and on our own results of operations, competitive position or financial condition.
RISKS RELATED TO DOING BUSINESS IN CHINA
In order to comply with PRC regulatory requirements, we operate our businesses through companies with which we have contractual relationships but in which we do not have controlling ownership. If the PRC government determines that our agreements with these companies are not in compliance with applicable regulations, our business in the PRC could be materially adversely affected.
We do not have direct or indirect equity ownership of our variable interest entity, or VIE, Xin Ao, which operates all our businesses in China. At the same time, however, we have entered into contractual arrangements with Xin Ao and its individual owners pursuant to which we received an economic interest in, and exert a controlling influence over Xin Ao, in a manner substantially similar to a controlling equity interest.
Although we believe that our current business operations are in compliance with the current laws in China, we cannot be sure that the PRC government would view our operating arrangements to be in compliance with PRC regulations that may be adopted in the future. There have been recent reports of potential PRC government efforts to regulate or perhaps limit the use of VIE structures for new foreign investment, particularly in the internet and other telecommunications industries. We are monitoring developments in this area and do not believe any adverse impact on our operations is likely.
If we are determined not to be in compliance with future PRC regulations, the PRC government could levy fines, revoke our business and operating licenses, require us to discontinue or restrict our operations, restrict our right to collect revenues, require us to restructure our business, corporate structure or operations, impose additional conditions or requirements with which we may not be able to comply, impose restrictions on our business operations or on our customers, or take other regulatory or enforcement actions against us that could be harmful to our business. As a result, our business in the PRC could be materially adversely affected.
We rely on contractual arrangements with our VIE for our operations, which may not be as effective in providing control over these entities as direct ownership.
Our operations and financial results are dependent on our VIE, Xin Ao, in which we have no equity ownership interest and must rely on contractual arrangements to control and operate the businesses of our VIE. These contractual arrangements are not as effective in providing control over the VIE as direct ownership. For example, the VIE may be unwilling or unable to perform its contractual obligations under our commercial agreements. Consequently, we would not be able to conduct our operations in the manner currently planned. In addition, the VIE may seek to renew its agreements on terms that are disadvantageous to us. Although we have entered into a series of agreements that provide us with substantial ability to control the VIE, we may not succeed in enforcing our rights under them insofar as our contractual rights and legal remedies under PRC law are inadequate. In addition, if we are unable to renew these agreements on favorable terms when these agreements expire or enter into similar agreements with other parties, our business may not be able to operate or expand, and our operating expenses may significantly increase.
If we become directly subject to the recent scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity involving certain U.S.-listed Chinese companies, we may have to expend significant resources to investigate and resolve the matter which could harm our business operations, stock price and reputation and could result in a loss of your investment in our stock, especially if such matter cannot be addressed and resolved quickly.
Recently, U.S. public companies that have substantially all of their operations in China, particularly companies like us which have completed so-called reverse merger transactions, have been the subject of intense scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity by investors, short sellers, financial commentators and regulatory agencies, such as the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Much of the scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity has centered around financial and accounting irregularities and mistakes, a lack of effective internal controls over financial accounting, inadequate corporate governance policies or a lack of adherence thereto and, in many cases, allegations of fraud. As a result of the scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity, the publicly traded stock of many U.S. listed Chinese companies has sharply decreased in value and, in some cases, has become virtually worthless. Many of these companies are now subject to shareholder lawsuits, SEC enforcement actions and are conducting internal and external investigations into the allegations. It is not clear what affect this sector-wide scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity will have on our company, our business and our stock price. If we become the subject of any unfavorable allegations, whether such allegations are proven to be true or untrue, we will have to expend significant resources to investigate such allegations and/or defend our company. This situation could be costly and time consuming and distract our management from growing our company. If such allegations are not proven to be groundless, our company and business operations will be severely impacted and your investment in our stock could be rendered worthless.
Adverse changes in political and economic policies of the PRC government could impede the overall economic growth of China, which could reduce the demand for our products and damage our business.
We conduct all of our operations and generate all of our revenue in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects are affected significantly by economic, political and legal developments in China. The PRC economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including:the higher level of government involvement; the early stage of development of the market-oriented sector of the economy; the rapid growth rate; the higher level of control over foreign exchange; and the allocation of resources.
As the PRC economy has been transitioning from a planned economy to a more market-oriented economy, the PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. While these measures may benefit the overall PRC economy, they may also have a negative effect on us.
Although the PRC government has in recent years implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the PRC government continues to exercise significant control over economic growth in China through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and imposing policies that impact particular industries or companies in different ways.
Any adverse change in the economic conditions or government policies in China could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth and the level of new construction investments and expenditures in China, which in turn could lead to a reduction in demand for our services and consequently have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.
Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could limit the legal protections available to you and us.
We conduct substantially all of our business through our operating subsidiary in the PRC. Our operating subsidiaries are generally subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign investments in China and, in particular, laws applicable to foreign-invested enterprises. The PRC legal system is based on written statutes, and prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Since 1979, a series of new PRC laws and regulations have significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China. However, since the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involve uncertainties, which may limit legal protections available to you and us. In addition, any litigation in China may be protracted and result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention. In addition, all of our executive officers and all of our directors are residents of China and not of the United States, and substantially all the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it could be difficult for investors to affect service of process in the United States or to enforce a judgment obtained in the United States against our Chinese operations and subsidiaries.
The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we must conduct our business activities.
The PRC government has exercised and continues to exercise substantial control over virtually every sector of the Chinese economy through regulation and state ownership. Our ability to operate in China may be harmed by changes in its laws and regulations, including those relating to taxation, import and export tariffs, environmental regulations, land use rights, property and other matters. We believe that our operations in China are in material compliance with all applicable legal and regulatory requirements. However, the central or local governments of the jurisdictions in which we operate may impose new, stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations that would require additional expenditures and efforts on our part to ensure our compliance with such regulations or interpretations.
Accordingly, government actions in the future, including any decision not to continue to support recent economic reforms and to return to a more centrally planned economy or regional or local variations in the implementation of economic policies, could have a significant effect on economic conditions in China or particular regions thereof and could require us to divest ourselves of any interest we then hold in Chinese properties or joint ventures.
A slowdown or other adverse developments in the PRC economy may materially and adversely affect our customers, demand for our services and our business.
We are a holding company. All of our operations are conducted in the PRC and all of our revenues are generated from sales in the PRC. Although the PRC economy has grown significantly in recent years, we cannot assure you that such growth will continue. A slowdown in overall economic growth, an economic downturn or recession or other adverse economic developments in the PRC may materially reduce the demand for new construction projects and adversely affect our business.
Restrictions on currency exchange may limit our ability to receive and use our sales revenue effectively.
Most of our sales revenue and expenses are denominated in RMB. Under PRC law, the RMB is currently convertible under the "current account," which includes dividends and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, but not under the "capital account," which includes foreign direct investment and loans. Currently, our PRC operating subsidiary may purchase foreign currencies for settlement of current account transactions, including payments of dividends to us, without the approval of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, the relevant PRC government authorities may limit or eliminate our ability to purchase foreign currencies in the future. Since a significant amount of our future revenue will be denominated in RMB, any existing and future restrictions on currency exchange may limit our ability to utilize revenue generated in RMB to fund our business activities outside China that are denominated in foreign currencies.
Foreign exchange transactions by PRC operating subsidiaries under the capital account continue to be subject to significant foreign exchange controls and require the approval of or need to register with PRC government authorities, including SAFE. In particular, if our PRC operating subsidiaries borrow foreign currency through loans from us or other foreign lenders, these loans must be registered with SAFE, and if we finance the subsidiaries by means of additional capital contributions, these capital contributions must be approved by certain government authorities, including the Ministry of Commerce, or MOFCOM, or their respective local counterparts. These limitations could affect their ability to obtain foreign exchange through debt or equity financing.
Failure to comply with PRC regulations relating to the establishment of offshore special purpose companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident stockholders to personal liability, limit our ability to acquire PRC companies or to inject capital into our PRC subsidiaries, limit our PRC subsidiaries' ability to distribute profits to us or otherwise materially adversely affect us.
In October 2005, the PRC State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, issued the Notice on Relevant Issues in the Foreign Exchange Control over Financing and Return Investment Through Special Purpose Companies by Residents Inside China, generally referred to as Circular 75, which required PRC residents to register with the competent local SAFE branch (1) before they establish or gain control of an overseas special purpose vehicle, or SPV, for the purpose of overseas equity financing (including convertible debt financing); (2) when they contribute their assets or equity interests in a domestic enterprise to an SPV or engage in overseas financing after contributing assets or equity interests to an SPV; and (3) when their SPV undergoes a material change outside of China, such as a change in share capital or merger or acquisition. Failure to comply with the requirements of Circular 75, as applied by SAFE in accordance with Notice 106, may result in fines and other penalties under PRC laws for evasion of applicable foreign exchange restrictions. Any such failure could also result in the SPV's subsidiaries being impeded or prevented from distributing their profits and the proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to the SPV, or from engaging in other transfers of funds into or out of China.
We have asked our stockholders, who are PRC residents as defined in Circular 75, to register with the relevant branch of SAFE, as currently required, in connection with their equity interests in us and our acquisitions of equity interests in our PRC subsidiaries. Our PRC Residents stockholders, Mr. Han and Mr. He have obtained the SAFE registration on September 29, 2007. However, we cannot provide any assurances that they have made all necessary amendments to their registration to fully comply with, all applicable registrations or approvals required by Circular 75. Moreover, because of uncertainty over how Circular 75 will be interpreted and implemented, and how or whether SAFE will apply it to us, we cannot predict how it will affect our business operations or future strategies. For example, our present and prospective PRC subsidiaries' ability to conduct foreign exchange activities, such as the remittance of dividends and foreign currency-denominated borrowings, may be subject to compliance with Circular 75 by our PRC resident beneficial holders.
In addition, such PRC residents may not always be able to complete the necessary registration procedures required by Circular 75. We also have little control over either our present or prospective direct or indirect stockholders or the outcome of such registration procedures. A failure by our PRC resident beneficial holders or future PRC resident stockholders to comply with Circular 75, if SAFE requires it, could subject these PRC resident beneficial holders to fines or legal sanctions, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities, limit our subsidiaries' ability to make distributions or pay dividends or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.
We may be unable to complete a business combination transaction efficiently or on favorable terms due to complicated merger and acquisition regulations implemented on September 8, 2006.
The recent PRC Regulation on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Companies by Foreign Investors also governs the approval process by which a PRC company may participate in an acquisition of its assets or its equity interests. Depending on the structure of the transaction, the new regulation will require the Chinese parties to make a series of applications and supplemental applications to the government agencies. In some instances, the application process may require the presentation of economic data concerning a transaction, including appraisals of the target business and evaluations of the acquirer, which are designed to allow the government to assess the transaction. Government approvals will have expiration dates by which a transaction must be completed and reported to the government agencies. Compliance with the new regulations is likely to be more time consuming and expensive than in the past and the government can now exert more control over the combination of two businesses. Accordingly, due to the new regulation, our ability to engage in business combination transactions has become significantly more complicated, time consuming and expensive, and we may not be able to negotiate a transaction that is acceptable to our stockholders or sufficiently protect their interests in a transaction.
The new regulation allows PRC government agencies to assess the economic terms of a business combination transaction. Parties to a business combination transaction may have to submit to MOFCOM and the other government agencies an appraisal report, an evaluation report and the acquisition agreement, all of which form part of the application for approval, depending on the structure of the transaction. The regulations also prohibit a transaction at an acquisition price obviously lower than the appraised value of the Chinese business or assets and in certain transaction structures, require that consideration must be paid within defined periods, generally not in excess of a year. The regulation also limits our ability to negotiate various terms of the acquisition, including aspects of the initial consideration, contingent consideration, holdback provisions, indemnification provisions and provisions relating to the assumption and allocation of assets and liabilities. Transaction structures involving trusts, nominees and similar entities are prohibited. Therefore, such regulation may impede our ability to negotiate and complete a business combination transaction on financial terms that satisfy our investors and protect our stockholders' economic interests.
Fluctuations in exchange rates could adversely affect our business and the value of our securities.
The value of our common stock will be indirectly affected by the foreign exchange rate between U.S. dollars and RMB and between those currencies and other currencies in which our sales may be denominated. Because substantially all of our earnings and cash assets are denominated in RMB, fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the RMB will affect our balance sheet and our earnings per share in U.S. dollars. In addition, appreciation or depreciation in the value of the RMB relative to the U.S. dollar would affect our financial results reported in U.S. dollar terms without giving effect to any underlying change in our business or results of operations. Fluctuations in the exchange rate will also affect the relative value of any dividend we issue that will be exchanged into U.S. dollars and earnings from, and the value of, any U.S. dollar-denominated investments we make in the future.
Since July 2005, the RMB has no longer been pegged to the U.S. dollar. Although the People's Bank of China regularly intervenes in the foreign exchange market to prevent significant short-term fluctuations in the exchange rate, the RMB may appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the medium to long term. Moreover, it is possible that in the future PRC authorities may lift restrictions on fluctuations in the RMB exchange rate and lessen intervention in the foreign exchange market.
Very limited hedging transactions are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these transactions may be limited, and we may not be able to successfully hedge our exposure at all. In addition, our foreign currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert RMB into foreign currencies.
Currently, some of our raw materials and major equipment are imported. In the event that the U.S. dollars appreciate against RMB, our costs will increase. If we cannot pass the resulting costs on to our customers, our profitability and operating results will suffer.
Under the Current Enterprise Income Tax, or EIT, Law, we may be classified as a "resident enterprise" of China. Such classification will likely result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC stockholders.
We are a holding company incorporated under the laws of Delaware. We conduct substantially all of our business through our wholly-owned and other consolidated entities in China, and we derive all of our income from these entities. Prior to January 1, 2008, dividends derived by foreign enterprises from business operations in China were not subject to the Chinese enterprise income tax. However, such tax exemption ceased as of January 1, 2008 and thereafter with the effectiveness of the new Enterprise Income Tax Law, or EIT Law.
Under the EIT Law, if we are not deemed to be a "resident enterprise" for Chinese tax purposes, a withholding tax at the rate of 10% would be applicable to any dividends paid by our Chinese subsidiaries to us. However, if we are deemed to be a "resident enterprise" established outside of China whose "place of effective management" is located in China, we would be classified as a resident enterprise for Chinese tax purposes and thus would be subject to an enterprise income tax rate of 25% on all of our income, including interest income on the proceeds from this offering on a worldwide basis.The regulations promulgated pursuant to the EIT Law define the term "place of effective management" as "establishments that carry out substantial and overall management and control over the manufacturing and business operations, personnel, accounting, properties, etc. of an enterprise." The State Administration of Taxation issued a SAT Circular 82 on April 22, 2009, which provides that the "place of effective management" of a Chinese-controlled overseas-incorporated enterprise is located in China if the following requirements are satisfied: (i) the senior management and core management departments in charge of its daily operations function are mainly located in the PRC; (ii) its financial and human resources decisions are subject to determination or approval by persons or bodies located in the PRC; (iii) its major assets, accounting books, company seals, and minutes and files of its board and shareholders' meetings are located or kept in the PRC; and (iv) no less than half of the enterprise's directors or senior management with voting rights reside in the PRC. SAT Circular 82 applies only to overseas registered enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises, not to those controlled by PRC individuals. If the Company's non-PRC incorporated entities are deemed PRC tax residents, such entities would be subject to PRC tax under the EIT Law. The Company has analyzed the applicability of the EIT Law and related regulations, and for each of the applicable periods presented, the Company has not accrued for PRC tax on such basis . . In addition, although under the EIT Law and the related regulations dividends paid to us by our PRC subsidiaries would qualify as "tax-exempted income," we cannot assure you that such dividends will not be subject to a 10% withholding tax, as the PRC foreign exchange control authorities, which enforce the withholding tax, have not yet issued guidance with respect to the processing of outbound remittances to entities that are treated as resident enterprises for PRC enterprise income tax purposes. As a result of such changes, our historical operating results will not be indicative of our operating results for future periods and the value of our shares of common stock may be adversely affected. We are actively monitoring the possibility of "resident enterprise" treatment and are evaluating appropriate organizational changes to avoid this treatment, to the extent possible.